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poodlefan

Studies About Dogs

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Hey guys, some fantastic articles here and I've finally had a chance to go through most of them. That said, I was thinking would it be possible to have subheadings to group the articles and make the information more accessible to people interested in specific topics?

For example, some subheadings I thought might be useful could be: vaccination, desexing, dog behaviour, dog intelligence, effects of dog ownership etc.

I completely agree. I think it would be good if posters be encouraged to say a few words about why the article is important. Eg, the importance of the effect of dextroamphetamine on Beagle dogs isn't clear to me . . . but I'm happy to be educated.

It would also be useful if people could indicate whether the article is freely available for download, or whether it's going to cost $20+ do download the full article.

Edited by sandgrubber

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Title:

Independent Inquiry into Dog Breeding

Background:

The background to the Inquiry was a showing by the BBC on 19 August 2008 of a television documentary called Pedigree Dogs Exposed. It was a hard-hitting piece of journalism written and directed by Jemima Harrison. It was aimed at those breeders of pedigree dogs who had ignored the adverse effects of inbreeding and particularly those who were breeding for extreme conformations. The United Kingdom’s premiere dog club, the Kennel Club, felt that it had been unfairly treated and complained to OfCom, the regulator of the UK Communications industry. At the time of writing, this dispute has not been settled. Nevertheless, the BBC pulled out of its longstanding arrangement to televise Crufts dog show. Moreover, the public reaction was such that Dogs Trust, the Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals and the People’s Dispensary for Sick Animals ended their support; and Pedigree Petfoods and Hills Pet Nutrition cancelled their sponsorship of the show. The Associate Parliamentary Group on Animal Welfare (APGAW) announced that it would hold hearings on the breeding of pedigree dogs. At the same time the Kennel Club combined forces with a leading dog charity, Dogs Trust, and announced an independent Inquiry into the breeding of all dogs.

Comments:

This is a UK inquiry but I believe it has relevance to the current Australian situation. Contains a series of thought provoking recommendations.

Also contains lots of references to relevant studies.

Link:

Independent Inquiry into Dog Breeding

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Diva   

I hope this hasn't been posted before, if it was I missed it.

It's a 2009 study revealing shortened longevity as a possible complication associated with ovary removal in dogs.

In summary, it found female Rottweilers who kept their ovaries for at least 6 years were 4.6 times more likely to reach exceptional longevity (i.e. live >30 % longer than average) than females with the shortest ovary exposure. The authors claim the results support the notion that how long females keep their ovaries determines how long they live.

A discussion by one of the authors is here:

http://www.gpmcf.org/respectovaries.html

And the study was originally published here:

Aging Cell (2009) 8, pp752–755

Exploring mechanisms of sex differences in longevity:

lifetime ovary exposure and exceptional longevity in dogs

David J. Waters,1,2 Seema S. Kengeri,1 Beth Clever,1

Julie A. Booth,1 Aimee H. Maras,1 Deborah L.

Schlittler1 and Michael G. Hayek3

1Center for Exceptional Longevity Studies, Gerald P. Murphy

Cancer Foundation, West Lafayette, IN, USA

2The Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences and The Center

on Aging and the Life Course, Purdue University, West Lafayette,

IN, USA

3P&G Pet Care, Lewisburg, OH, USA

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1474-9726.2009.00513.x/pdf

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A genetic dissection of breed composition and performance enhancement in the Alaskan sled dog Heather J Huson1,2, Heidi G Parker1, Jonathan Runstadler2 and Elaine A Ostrander

BMC Genetics 2010, 11:71 doi:10.1186/1471-2156-11-71 online at: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2156/11/71

Abstract

Background

The Alaskan sled dog offers a rare opportunity to investigate the development of a dog breed based solely on performance, rather than appearance, thus setting the breed apart from most others. Several established breeds, many of which are recognized by the American Kennel Club (AKC), have been introduced into the sled dog population to enhance racing performance. We have used molecular methods to ascertain the constitutive breeds used to develop successful sled dog lines, and in doing so, determined the breed origins of specific performance-related behaviors.

One hundred and ninety-nine Alaskan sled dogs were genotyped using 96 microsatellite markers that span the canine genome. These data were compared to that from 141 similarly genotyped purebred dog breeds. Sled dogs were evaluated for breed composition based on a variety of performance phenotypes including speed, endurance and work ethic, and the data stratified based on population structure.

Results

We observe that the Alaskan sled dog has a unique molecular signature and that the genetic profile is sufficient for identifying dogs bred for sprint versus distance. When evaluating contributions of existing breeds we find that the Alaskan Malamute and Siberian Husky contributions are associated with enhanced endurance; Pointer and Saluki are associated with enhanced speed and the Anatolian Shepherd demonstrates a positive influence on work ethic.

Conclusion

We have established a genetic breed profile for the Alaskan sled dog, identified profile variance between sprint and distance dogs, and established breeds associated with enhanced performance attributes. These data set the stage for mapping studies aimed at finding genes that are associated with athletic attributes integral to the high performing Alaskan sled dog.

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http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/03/120326112842.htm

Hip dysplasia (HD) in dogs is affected to a larger degree than previously believed by the environment in which puppies grow up. It is particularly during the period from birth to three months that various environmental factors appear to influence the development of this disease. During the puppy stage, preventive measures can therefore be recommended with a view to giving dogs disposed to the condition a better quality of life.

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Wundahoo   

GUIDELINES FOR THE VACCINATION OF DOGS AND CATS

COMPILED BY THE VACCINATION GUIDELINES GROUP (VGG)OF THE WORLD SMALL ANIMAL VETERINARY ASSOCIATION (WSAVA)

http://www.wsava.org/PDF/Misc/VaccinationGuidelines2010.pdf

"We should aim to vaccinate every animal with core vaccines, and to vaccinate each individual less frequently by only giving non-core vaccines that are necessary for that animal."

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http://www.scienceda...20326112842.htm

Hip dysplasia (HD) in dogs is affected to a larger degree than previously believed by the environment in which puppies grow up. It is particularly during the period from birth to three months that various environmental factors appear to influence the development of this disease. During the puppy stage, preventive measures can therefore be recommended with a view to giving dogs disposed to the condition a better quality of life.

Interesting study that contradicts a lot of people's beliefs! Hope you don't mind if I quote another bit to encourage people to read it:

"Puppies usually live with their mother at the breeder's for the first eight weeks of their life. Several factors related to the living conditions at the breeder's were shown to have an influence on the incidence of HD. Puppies born in the spring or summer and at breeders who lived on a farm or small holding, had a lower risk of developing HD. After about eight weeks, the puppies began life with their new owner. The opportunity to exercise daily in parks up until the age of three months reduced the risk of HD, whereas the daily use of steps during the same period increased the risk. Overall, it would appear that daily exercise out in gently undulating terrain up until the age of three months gives a good prognosis when it comes to preventing HD."

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Katrinka   

I hope I'm not repeating? Correct me please if I do!

Endogenous Gonadal Hormone Exposure and Bone Sarcoma Risk

http://cebp.aacrjournals.org/content/11/11/1434.full

In summary, this study found that male and female Rottweilers with the shortest lifetime gonadal exposure had the highest risk for bone sarcoma. Dogs that underwent early elective gonadectomy had a one in four lifetime risk of bone sarcoma development compared with a significantly reduced risk among dogs that were sexually intact throughout their lifetime.

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brain tumors are not the only biological cause that may turn a dog aggressive!

Pain-related aggression in dogs: 12 clinical cases

Journal of Veterinary Behavior: Clinical Applications and Research

Volume 7, Issue 2 , Pages 99-102, March 2012

Abstract

The aim of this retrospective study was to describe the main features of pain-related aggression in dogs. Twelve dogs presented for aggressive problems at the Veterinary Hospital of the Autonomous University of Barcelona, Spain, were included, and a questionnaire was used to gather information on the context of the aggression, body posture during the attack, impulsiveness, and aggressive behavior before the onset of the pain-eliciting condition. The most common cause of pain was hip dysplasia (66.7%), but no relationship was found between the cause of pain and the characteristics of the aggressive behavior. Dogs were classified as having been aggressive before or after the onset of painful condition. Dogs that had not been aggressive before the onset of the pain-eliciting condition were more impulsive (df = 1, χ2 = 5.3, P = 0.0209), showed aggression as a result of manipulation context more frequently (df = 1, χ2 = 6, P = 0.0143), and adopted a defensive body posture more frequently (df = 1, χ2 = 3.733, P = 0.0533) than dogs that had been aggressive before the onset of pain. These results suggest that previous expression of aggressive behavior has a major effect on the pattern of pain-related aggression in dogs.

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This is quite an interesting study about canine skull "diversity" and genes that may have been selected upon to create short nosed breeds. Obviously it's multigene but this is likely one of the genes contributing to canine skull morphology.

Schoenebeck JJ, Hutchinson SA, Byers A, Beale HC, Carrington B, et al. (2012) Variation of BMP3 Contributes to Dog Breed Skull Diversity. PLoS Genet 8(8): e1002849. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1002849

Schoenebeck JJ, Hutchinson SA, Byers A, Beale HC, Carrington B, et al. (2012) Variation of BMP3 Contributes to Dog Breed Skull Diversity. PLoS Genet 8(8): e1002849. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1002849

Abstract

Since the beginnings of domestication, the craniofacial architecture of the domestic dog has morphed and radiated to human whims. By beginning to define the genetic underpinnings of breed skull shapes, we can elucidate mechanisms of morphological diversification while presenting a framework for understanding human cephalic disorders. Using intrabreed association mapping with museum specimen measurements, we show that skull shape is regulated by at least five quantitative trait loci (QTLs). Our detailed analysis using whole-genome sequencing uncovers a missense mutation in BMP3. Validation studies in zebrafish show that Bmp3 function in cranial development is ancient. Our study reveals the causal variant for a canine QTL contributing to a major morphologic trait.

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Jigsaw   

Study on aggressive behaviour in English Cocker Spaniels. Full study should be available on link.

http://www.journalvetbehavior.com/article/S1558-7878(12)00068-8/fulltext

Abstract

Aggression is one of the most common behavioral problems in dogs and may have important negative effects on public health, human–animal bond, and animal welfare. There is ample evidence showing a negative correlation between serum serotonin concentration and aggressive behavior in a variety of species, including the domestic dogs. This negative correlation is particularly pronounced in dogs that show impulsive aggression. Data obtained in some previous studies suggest that the English cocker spaniel (ECS) is more likely to show impulsive aggression than other breeds. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze possible differences in serum serotonin levels between aggressive ECS and aggressive dogs of other breeds. Nineteen ECSs presented for aggression at the Animal Behavior Service (School of Veterinary Science, Barcelona, Spain) were evaluated and compared with 20 aggressive dogs of other breeds attended at the same center. Serum serotonin levels were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. Statistical analysis was done using the SPSS 15.0 for Windows. Aggressive ECSs had significantly (P < 0.001) lower levels of serum serotonin than aggressive dogs of other breeds (318.6 ± 67.1 and 852.77 ± 100.58 ng/mL, respectively). Variances were not significantly different between ECSs and other breeds (standard deviation = 449.84 ng/mL vs. 292.47 ng/mL, P > 0.05). This finding may explain why ECSs are more likely to show impulsive aggression than other breeds, and suggests that the ECS could be a good model to study the neurophysiologic mechanisms underlying impulsive aggression.

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Title: The genomic signature of dog domestication reveals adaptation to a starch-rich diet

http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/nature11837.html

A new paper published in Nature whose authors think they have found a link between starch metabolism in dogs and domestication i.e. that increased starch utilisation (i.e. as result of humans and or agriculture) was one of the key factors driving domestication. Very interesting read. There is also a Nature News article summarising it.

Abstract:

The domestication of dogs was an important episode in the development of human civilization. The precise timing and location of this event is debated1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and little is known about the genetic changes that accompanied the transformation of ancient wolves into domestic dogs. Here we conduct whole-genome resequencing of dogs and wolves to identify 3.8 million genetic variants used to identify 36 genomic regions that probably represent targets for selection during dog domestication. Nineteen of these regions contain genes important in brain function, eight of which belong to nervous system development pathways and potentially underlie behavioural changes central to dog domestication6. Ten genes with key roles in starch digestion and fat metabolism also show signals of selection. We identify candidate mutations in key genes and provide functional support for an increased starch digestion in dogs relative to wolves. Our results indicate that novel adaptations allowing the early ancestors of modern dogs to thrive on a diet rich in starch, relative to the carnivorous diet of wolves, constituted a crucial step in the early domestication of dogs.

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Summary of veterinary medical literature regarding the pros/cons of spay/neuter and ages regarding some.

Long-Term Health Risks and Benefits Associated with Spay / Neuter in Dogs

Laura J. Sanborn, M.S.

May 14, 2007

Summary:

An objective reading of the veterinary medical literature reveals a complex situation with respect to the longterm health risks and benefits associated with spay/neuter in dogs. The evidence shows that spay/neuter correlates with both positive AND adverse health effects in dogs. It also suggests how much we really do not yet understand about this subject.

On balance, it appears that no compelling case can be made for neutering most male dogs, especially immature male dogs, in order to prevent future health problems. The number of health problems associated with neutering may exceed the associated health benefits in most cases.

For female dogs, the situation is more complex. The number of health benefits associated with spaying may exceed the associated health problems in some (not all) cases. On balance, whether spaying improves the odds of overall good health or degrades them probably depends on the age of the female dog and the relative risk of various diseases in the different breeds.

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tjhowell   

Hi everyone,

I've posted a couple of times here before when I need help with some dog research that I'm running, and you have always been so helpful, as a group, that I am calling on you again! This time we're hoping to get information about pet-keeping practices for dog, rabbit, bird, and cat owners. By pet-keeping practices I mean things like what you feed your dogs, how you house them, how many you have, how much time you spend with them, etc. I know that people have a lot of strong opinions about what SHOULD be done, but there's precious little data out there to let us know what's actually going on.

If you'd be willing to help me out by completing this survey, I'd really appreciate it

The survey is entirely online, at http://latrobepsy.qualtrics.com/SE/?...BhJ2W75pcYxK9T

Thanks in advance!

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KJJ   

Hi everyone,

I've posted a couple of times here before when I need help with some dog research that I'm running, and you have always been so helpful, as a group, that I am calling on you again! This time we're hoping to get information about pet-keeping practices for dog, rabbit, bird, and cat owners. By pet-keeping practices I mean things like what you feed your dogs, how you house them, how many you have, how much time you spend with them, etc. I know that people have a lot of strong opinions about what SHOULD be done, but there's precious little data out there to let us know what's actually going on.

If you'd be willing to help me out by completing this survey, I'd really appreciate it

The survey is entirely online, at http://latrobepsy.qualtrics.com/SE/?...BhJ2W75pcYxK9T

Thanks in advance!

when I try the link I get the message "the URL is incorrect" :confused:

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