Jump to content
Sign in to follow this  
Troy

Chow Chow

17 posts in this topic

Troy   

The Chow Chow

ANKC Standard

(from http://www.ankc.org.au/home/breeds_details.asp?bid=174 )

Group: Group 7 (Non Sporting)

General Appearance: An active, compact, short-coupled and well balanced dog, well knit in frame, with tail carried well over the back.

Characteristics: A well balanced dog, leonine in appearance, with proud dignified bearing; loyal yet aloof; unique in its stilted gait and bluish-black tongue. (See also under Ears and Hindquarters.)

Temperament: With proud dignified bearing; loyal yet aloof.

Head And Skull: Skull flat and broad, with little stop, well filled out under the eyes. Muzzle moderate in length, broad from the eyes to the point (not pointed at the end like a fox). Nose black, large and wide in all cases (with the exception of cream and white in which case a light-coloured nose is permissible and in blues and fawns a self-coloured nose); but in all colours a black nose is preferable.

Eyes: Dark and small, preferably almond-shaped (in blue or fawn dog a light colour is permissible).

Ears: Small, thick, slightly rounded at the tip, carried stiffly erect but placed well forward over the eyes and wide apart, which gives the dog the peculiar characteristic expression of the breed, viz., a scowl.

Mouth: Teeth strong and level, giving scissor bite. Tongue bluish black. Flews and roof of mouth black. Gums preferably black.

Neck: Strong, full, set well on the shoulders and slightly arched.

Forequarters: Shoulders muscular and sloping. Forelegs perfectly straight, of moderate length, with good bone.

Body: Chest broad and deep. Back short, straight and strong. Loins powerful.

Hindquarters: Hindlegs muscular and hocks well let down and perfectly straight which are essential in order to produce the Chow's characteristic gait.

Feet: Small, round and catlike, standing well on the toes.

Tail: Set high and carried well over the back.

Gait/Movement: Unique stilted gait.

Coat: Abundant, dense, straight and stand-off. Outer coat rather coarse in texture and with a soft woolly undercoat. The Chow Chow is a profusely coated dog and balance should therefore be assessed when the coat is at its natural length.

Colour: Whole coloured black, red, blue, fawn, cream or white, frequently shaded but not patches or parti-coloured (the underpart of tail and back of thighs frequently of a light colour).

Sizes: Minimum height for Chows to be 46 cms (18 ins) but in every case balance should be the outstanding feature and height left to the discretion of the judges.

Faults: Drop ears.

Tongue splashed or patchy.

Off black noses except in the colours specified, viz., creams, whites, blues or fawns.

Tail not carried over the back.

Any artificial shortening of the coat which alters the natural outline or expression of the dog should be penalised.

Parti-coloured.

Notes: Male animals should have two apparently normal testicles fully descended into the scrotum.

The Standard of the smooth variety is identical with the above except that the coat is smooth.

QUESTIONS

1. What is my relationship with the breed? (ie breeder, first time owner etc)

2. Where and why was the breed first developed?

3. How common is it in Australia?

4. What is the average lifespan?

5. What is the general temperament/personality?

6. How much daily exercise is needed for the average adult?

7. Is it a breed that a first time dog owner could easily cope with?

8. Can solo dogs of this breed easily occupy themselves for long periods?

9. How much grooming is required?

10. Is it too boisterous for very small children or for infirm people (unless the dog is well trained)?

11. Are there any common hereditary problems a puppy buyer should be aware of?

12. When buying a puppy, what are the things you should ask of the breeder? (eg what health tests have been done (if applicable) and what is an acceptable result to those tests so the buyer has an idea of what the result should be)

If you wish to contribute to the knowledge about this breed, please answer the above questions. (Copy and paste them into a new post).

  • Please only answer if you breed or own a pedigree example of this breed.
  • You do not have to answer all questions
  • Please keep posts limited to answering questions or for asking further questions if you require more (or expanded) information.

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites
goldchow   

QUESTIONS

1. What is my relationship with the breed? (ie breeder, first time owner etc)

Breeder, exhibitor & devotee of the breed for 30 years.

2. Where and why was the breed first developed?

The Chow Chow is not a man made breed and is one of the few orginal pure breeds in existance today and whose history dates back some thousands of years. Much about this breed has been lost or misinterpreted however references and sculptures of 'strong and square, powerful, lion like dogs with black tongues & mouths and with a peculiar stilted gait is made to describe the warrior dogs which accompanied the Tartars when they invaded China in the 11th CenturyBC.These were known as Man Kou dogs and is believed to be the Chow Chows ancestors. The Chow breed actually goes back further than this and is thought by many to have evolved from a bear/mastiff mating as the Chow shares some bilological traits with some bears, including the blue black tongue.

3. How common is it in Australia?

The Chow is a minority breed in Australia

4. What is the average lifespan?

Between 12 and 16 years

5. What is the general temperament/personality?

Aloof, independent, proud and aristocratic, VERY stubborn, exceptionally loyal and devoted if treated with respect,wary of strangers, is naturally very protective of his territory and family.

6. How much daily exercise is needed for the average adult?

The Chow is very adaptable and can live quite happily in an apartment with a good walk twice a day.

They are equally happy on acreage with room to run but overall do not require a great deal of excercise.

7. Is it a breed that a first time dog owner could easily cope with?

Yes, providing the owner is prepared to forget everything they know about dogs in general and are prepared to learn and accept that the Chow is a very different & unique breed with different requirements in their handling, training and often diet.

8. Can solo dogs of this breed easily occupy themselves for long periods?

Chows are essentially a companion breed, long periods left alone isn't recommended.

9. How much grooming is required?

Thorough grooming is essential no less than once a week. Desexed Chows usually grow a massive and very fine coat which is more difficult & time consumming to keep looking nice..

10. Is it too boisterous for very small children or for infirm people (unless the dog is well trained)?

Generally not recommended for small children who can be unpredictable and not always properly supervised by their parents. The Chow is very well suited to older people, they are a naturally well behaved breed and are devoted companion & guardian for the elderly providing the owner is familliar with the breed.

11. Are there any common hereditary problems a puppy buyer should be aware of?

Entropian, Hip Dysplasia, Hypothyroidism, Luxating Patellas, Elongated Soft Palette

12. When buying a puppy, what are the things you should ask of the breeder? (eg what health tests have been done (if applicable) and what is an acceptable result to those tests so the buyer has an idea of what the result should be)

The prospective purchaser needs to do their homework and learn as much about the breed as they can. Ideally they should visit or speak to a number of different breeders for information about the breed and get a feel for one they feel comfortable with. Questions should be asked as to what health testing has been done, whether there is entropian in any of the lines behind the litter in question, are there any skin problems, what was the hip, elbow & knee scores ( hip scores below 4 is acceptable, elbows & knees should be 0/0 preferably), are there any breathing problems within the lines, what diet does the breeder use and recommend. If the parents cannot be viewed the buyer needs to know something about the temperament and possibly request photos. Anyone considering purchasing a chow MUST have a securely fenced back yard and they must be prepared to commit the next 15 years of their lives to the proper care of the Chow as this breed does not rehome well

Edited by goldchow

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

Thanks for that Goldchow, thios breed has always fascinated me, probably as it is as I like breeds ( no interferance from man in its make)

Very interesting

:laugh:

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

QUESTIONS

1. What is my relationship with the breed? (ie breeder, first time owner etc)

Breeder, exhibitor, owned by Chows for the past 35+ years

2. Where and why was the breed first developed?

Chow Chows are a primitive breed, determined by DNA studies to be @150,000 years old and one of the first off shoots from the wolf. They developed in far north China and Mongolia in the sub-arctic steppes. The early domestication of the Chow was probably @15,000 years ago and for most of that time served as an all purpose dog – herding, hunting, guarding, pulling, marching with the Mongolian hoards and when necessary provided flesh as food and fur as clothing.

3. How common is it in Australia?

Relatively “exotic”. There are approximately 30-35 ANKC affiliate registered breeders in Australia. In 2009, there were less than 200 registered puppies whelped.

4. What is the average lifespan?

Approximately 12 years

5. What is the general temperament/personality?

In general, similar to a cat – aloof, not into doing things for the sake of doing things; actually quite smart and good problem solvers, but easily bored with repetitive tasks. Affectionate under their own terms; very loyal yet very independent. Protective.

6. How much daily exercise is needed for the average adult?

30 minutes to an hour, but if you and the Chow are fit, they can walk much longer.

7. Is it a breed that a first time dog owner could easily cope with?

That depends entirely on how readily the first time dog owner is willing to learn as much as possible about canine behaviour and then forget everything they have learned, to engage in appropriate dog training (positive reinforcement) and appropriate socialisation (lots and lots for the life of the Chow), how much time and patience they have and how much research into the breed they have actually done.

8. Can solo dogs of this breed easily occupy themselves for long periods?

Not recommended. They are not a destructive breed but can quickly become couch potatoes. They are a “pack” animal and will function much better spending as much time with their pack (humans and other animal companions) as possible. Socialisation is very important to the overall mental well being of this breed.

9. How much grooming is required?

Approximately an hour a week brushing and combing, but depending on the dog and the quantity of coat, they may need more or less. Show grooming and maintenance will necessarily require a greater investment in time.

10. Is it too boisterous for very small children or for infirm people (unless the dog is well trained)?

Not a "boisterous" breed. Great companion dog for adult humans. However, adult humans must take responsibility to ensure that all small children are closely supervised and trained how to be around a dog, and the Chow should be similarly trained how to be around human puppies.

11. Are there any common hereditary problems a puppy buyer should be aware of?

The three main health issues identified are:

• Hip dysplasia

• Elbow dysplasia

• Entropion (this structural eyelid flaw that can lead to eye disease)

12. When buying a puppy, what are the things you should ask of the breeder? (eg what health tests have been done (if applicable) and what is an acceptable result to those tests so the buyer has an idea of what the result should be).

At this time health testing is not commonly practiced by all Chow breeders in Australia. However, the puppy buyer can and should ask about health testing, about the breeders’ willingness to vouchsafe the puppy’s health and in what manner (some have contracts, some have health warranties, and so on). Check to ensure that the breeder is indeed registered as such with the local ANKC affiliate.

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

Thanks for this info - I wanted to ask a question as Im thinking of getting a Chow - so cute and such unusual tempraments! However we have kids coming in the next two years ... are they okay with 'new arrivals..?'

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites
goldchow   

Chows are fine with new arrivals depending largely on how the owners introduce them to the newcomers.

Your term "cute' worrys me, they may be cute as a puppy however if you have read and paid attention to the info given above you will note that the Chow is not a lap dog or a toy or the easiest of breeds to care for or understand, requiring a dedicated owner who is able and prepared to spend lots of time with positive socialization and grooming for the puppy right through to and including adult hood. Expectant and new parents usually don't have that time and you will generally find most breeders prefer to place their beloved puppy with famaillies who have older children or with older people as companions.

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

I have many question about Chows and am hoping someone experienced with the breed can answer them for me. I was flicking through a dog book yesterday only to find a quote from a vet that said, "Never trust a Chow" and two separate vets at the practice I go to have told me, "You don't want a Chow Chow, they're not nice dogs".

However, from what I read about their temperaments they sound like a great dog, aloof, independent, etc.

But I do have a lot of questions -

The grooming looks like it would be a nightmare. How much grooming is required daily?

I read that the coat is insulation against both the heat and the cold and should never be fully clipped as it doesn't grow back well, is this accurate?

Can the tummy be clipped to prevent tangles in this tangle-prone area?

Can they be clipped back to a 'puppy coat' and does this make grooming easier?

I read that they are difficult to train. How much training is required to have a dog that can do the basics reliably?

I do have a colour preference although obviously a sound temperament is far more important than colour especially with a breed that seems to have a bit of a bad reputation. However, I do love the look of the blues, although they do seem to be relatively uncommon in Australia. Would this be accurate?

I also read that dilutes such as blues in other breeds e.g. SBTs can have health issues. Is this the case in Chows?

My vets also inform me that a Chow probably wouldn't get along with my cats. Is this accurate? For me the single most important consideration in any dog is that they get along with my cats - 3 males, 2 'moggies' and a Ragdoll.

Socialisation also seems to very important for Chow so is the '100 people in 100 days' rule a good one to follow for Chows?

I also read they should never be let off leash. We have a 'doggy beach' here where dogs can run around off leash. Is this a bad idea for Chows? Is the beach a bad idea anyway as sand may get in the coat causing hot spots? I read hot spots can be a problem in Chows.

I also read that Chows may not get along with other dogs so what other dog breeds are the most likely to get along with Chows in the same household?

Is it important that the other dog in the household be the opposite sex to the Chow?

I read that a male Chow is more likely to bond to a female human and a female Chow more likely to bond to a male human. Is this accurate?

Also, I am thinking of a Chow for myself sometime in the future and it would be my first dog that I am solely responsible for. In the past we have had two family dogs that I was not the primary carer for, a Labrador X (possibly/probably crossed with a German Shepard) and a million year old Kelpie, who, despite her age was still very active. Both dogs were female but I am thinking of a male Chow.

Is a Chow Chow a suitable dog for a first time owner? I know this one's already been answered. I'm just looking for some reassurance.

That's all the questions I can think of for now. Replies would be greatly appreciated.

Thank you in advance.

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites
goldchow   

Wow you do have alot of questions. My time is limited however I will endeavour to reply to your questions in stages. You might find some answers also on my website www.taukaichowchows.com and also on Senges website www.sengechows.com.

Firstly many vets don't like chows, possibly for many reasons but it has been my experience that they either do not know the breed and/or they are not prepared to accept that the chow breed is very different to ordinary canines, and the chow is no ordinary canine. Because there are so few in Australia compared to most other breeds vets don't really have a chance to meet many. I've lived with many different breeds, mainly working dogs, crosses and purebreds all my life and I would have no hesitation in telling you that of all those breeds, I have found the chow, over 30 years, to be the most even temperamented and trustworthy breed of the lot. If you really get to know your chow, and understand the breed you can almost guaruntee his reaction to different circumstances.

The chow is basically a guard dog entitled to the same respect one would give a doberman or a GSD. Many see the beautiful fluffy lion like dog and immediately want to pat or cuddle him, not a good idea unless you are the owner or the child of the owners family. Even a well socialized chow does not particularly like be handled by those he does not know until he's had the chance to check them out himself, one of the reasons the chow isn't the easiest of breeds to show.

Yes the coat is insulation against the heat as well as the cold. The grooming is actually no drama if its done regularly with a good steel comb and a pin brush and making sure you are getting right down to the skin at least once a week. Shaving a chow is never recommended, the coat only grows back thicker then ever and tends to matt, making it almost impossible to keep on top of. If the chow is desexed the coat then becomes much thicker and very fine and this coat too is very difficult to keep looking nice without even more regular grooming which is why I don't desex any of my chows unless its for health reasons.

Thorough grooming is essential when the chow is dropping coat and in the summer months. I do lightly clip the featherings and under the tummy of the oldies and the pets in the summer months mainly to prevent the collection of clover burr ans cobblers pegs which are pure hell to try and get out.

Its totally beyond me why people buy a coated breed and then proceed to shave or clip the coat off. Slowly people are beginning to see the merits of the smooth chow.

More later.

Edited by goldchow

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

Thank you for endeavouring to answer all of my questions.

Just another quick one while we're still on grooming.

I was reminded of this one because of a little 'problem' my Ragdoll has. When he poops it sometimes sticks to his butt fur and we have to remove it. We try to avoid the problem by trimming the fur around his butt. Is this a problem in Chow Chows and if it is can the same solution be used?

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites
Lhok   

How are chows in regard to getting along with other dogs? Some books say they are very dog aggressive and others say it is a socialisation thing.

Thanks

--Lhok

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites
Guest DBT   
Guest DBT

I have just posted a selection of books on the Chow Chow in the classifieds if anyone is interested.

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites
goldchow   

The books I would recommend are The Chow Chow by Honour Green and the Chow Chow by Miss C E Collett, both now out of print but can be sometimes picked up on Ebay or Amazons. These two books are serious chowists bibles.

Chows aren't generally a naturally aggressive breed, some other breeds will attack a chow unprovoked, no one has been able to come up with an answer why. Thoughts are that the straight stifle is a sign of aggression in the dog world, plus the chow does not have the doggie smell of ordinary canines and perhaps some other breeds see these as a threat. I don't personally advise chows in an off lead dog park and there are some breeds I would not consider running with the Chow.

Edited by goldchow

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

That is really interesting Goldchow .......what are the other breeds that you wouldn't run with a chow ? I have just had a dog social male surrendered to us for rehoming .......would like your suggestions as to which breeds he would best be suited to go with please :)

Edited by Loopy Lola

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites
goldchow   

Is the male to be rehomed a Chow?

There are a number of breeds I would not consider rehoming a chow with simply because the Chow is basically a laid back temperament, dignified, very stubborn and would be wanting to be top dog.

I had a lady who was very keen to take one of my desexed older chows, she fitted all I required in a home, and a staffy which made me a little hesitant. We took Chin to visit and within the hour I knew it wasn't going to work. The staffy, as staffys do, was full of energy, bouncing around, jumping all over Chin trying to get him to play. Chin was horrified that this dog could behave in what he saw as a 'most unbecoming manner' and was actually becoming quite stressed. It was a warm day and I knew Chin had to be removed from the situation quickly.

I have since rehomed two chows from different homes where there were staffies, the chows were extremely unhappy and depressed, both were second relationships and the new partners stipulated that the chows be put up for adoption.

I personally will not rehome a chow to anyone other than to someone who does know and understands the breed and who would therefore know whether any dog already in residence would be okay with the chow. The Chow often give their loyalty to one person or family and them only, so coping with rehoming can be very difficult for the chow, made easier if his new home is aware of and makes allowances for the breeds differences and his difficulty in adjusting..... and a would be disaster for all concerned if they don't.

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

Is the male to be rehomed a Chow?

There are a number of breeds I would not consider rehoming a chow with simply because the Chow is basically a laid back temperament, dignified, very stubborn and would be wanting to be top dog.

I had a lady who was very keen to take one of my desexed older chows, she fitted all I required in a home, and a staffy which made me a little hesitant. We took Chin to visit and within the hour I knew it wasn't going to work. The staffy, as staffys do, was full of energy, bouncing around, jumping all over Chin trying to get him to play. Chin was horrified that this dog could behave in what he saw as a 'most unbecoming manner' and was actually becoming quite stressed. It was a warm day and I knew Chin had to be removed from the situation quickly.

I have since rehomed two chows from different homes where there were staffies, the chows were extremely unhappy and depressed, both were second relationships and the new partners stipulated that the chows be put up for adoption.

I personally will not rehome a chow to anyone other than to someone who does know and understands the breed and who would therefore know whether any dog already in residence would be okay with the chow. The Chow often give their loyalty to one person or family and them only, so coping with rehoming can be very difficult for the chow, made easier if his new home is aware of and makes allowances for the breeds differences and his difficulty in adjusting..... and a would be disaster for all concerned if they don't.

Yes Kobe is an 8 year old male chow , he was entire until last Friday and previously lived with a female chow .......they were a breeding pair .He is in foster care with a carer who is home most of the time and usually takes in Malamutes for us .......she has no other dogs there at present .

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites
goldchow   

Thats sad LL, the last four or five that I have taken in here, and who have remained here, have all been eight and above, just when they really need their family, which pretty much applies to all breeds. Many chow Breeders and those who know the breed would say this boy would be better euthanised but I always liked to give them that second chance even though its not easy to find a suitable home for an older chow. Those who know the breed are aware of the work involved.

If I can be of any help please PM yours & the Chows details including whereabouts and I will pass it onto the Chow people and add them to my website to try to find this boy a home.

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites
Camel   

Just thought I would add to this as it hasn't been updated for a while.

1. What is my relationship with the breed? (ie breeder, first time owner etc)

Got a boy as my first dog almost 4 years ago as a 12 week old pup.

2. Where and why was the breed first developed?

As a few others have already mentioned, they were used as all-purpose dogs but now have been bred away from this. Many now possess a heavier head and stocky body and it has become a rarity to see a leaner/taller chow capable of more extensive exercise.

3. How common is it in Australia?

This breed has become more popular in recent years due to their calm demeanour, fluffy coat and teddy-bear face.

4. What is the average lifespan?

I've read 10-15 years but am yet to find out myself.

5. What is the general temperament/personality?

I can only speak for my own chow and my mother's chow.

Both have an incredibly high prey drive and will kill any small animal (including kangaroos) if given the chance and once dead, they leave them alone and will not eat them. Other than that, they are a fairly low maintenence dog in that they will not destroy the house when left alone.

Obviously this varies from dog to dog but I find chows are great with their owners- will allow you do to absolutely anything to them and will never growl or bite you but are wary with strangers. I socialised him from day one and took him out to hundreds of different places and he was great with strangers up until he turned one and half. Then suddenly one day it was like a switch had gone off and he was afraid and wary of some strangers. He doesn't tolerate crowded situations anymore so we avoid taking him into the city and let people know that if he wants to be pat, he will approach you and then you can touch him. On a few occasions people have snuck up behind him to touch him while he's under my chair resting and get snapped at in response. It never connects as it is just a warning/air snap and while I don't condone this behaviour, it is not smart to sneak up behind someone and effectively scare them while their guard is down. My mother's chow is a little more bomb-proof though and is happy to be surrounded by a crowd of people and pat/taken photos of.

Both chows are incredibly dog social and would never start or finish a fight. Mine instead antagonises other dogs and will start chasing and jumping on dogs that have given him a warning growl or snap and then he will need get put on lead. I find chows can be quite rough players due to their big coats and will happily smack another dog around even once the recipient no longer wants to play. This has gotten a lot better with age though.

Our chows are territorial and quite dominant in that they will pee on every tree and pole outside of their home, mine will also mount other dogs he deems to be more dominant than him.

Recall-wise they are not the best but also not the worst. When around small animals they go into prey mode and become deaf to you so best to leave them on lead. But mine at the park has good recall and will stay away from roads. My mother's dog however, loves to run away and go on adventures and then comes back all muddy (they live on a farm).

Toilet training- I never understood why this was a big thing because my chow was my first dog and pretty much came to me toilet trained. Then I got my second dog, who is not a chow, and realised that I should never have taken that for granted!

6. How much daily exercise is needed for the average adult?

They LOVE their walks and mum's dog gets walked 4-5 times a day and prefers to stay outside. My boy gets walked once to twice a day (1-2 hours) and on the weekends we like to take him somewhere special like hiking up a mountain. Mum's chow is a stockier chow and tires more easily whereas my boy is taller with a long muzzle and is a great jogging partner (they both share the same dad and mum's are sisters).

7. Is it a breed that a first time dog owner could easily cope with?

I did and looking back, he was so much easier than my second dog. Of course like any dog owner, we had those terrible puppy moments where they're chewing everything and nip you (he pulled my pants down at the park once!) and you wonder what you got yourself into but generally a great dog for the novice over. Just don't expect them to listen and obey your every command!

8. Can solo dogs of this breed easily occupy themselves for long periods?

i have only the odd occasion left him in the house alone overnight or 12 hours and he has been fine. Don't do it anymore since getting the second dog as the other is a destructo dog.

9. How much grooming is required?

My chow has been desexed and has quite the mane whereas mum's boy is entire has has a shorter coat. Both dogs only get properly brushed once a month, if even, and lightly brushed for a few seconds almost daily. I find this is enough and prevents matting for us. During shedding season this becomes unacceptable though and I find myself brushing him twice a week for an hour each time. So far it seems like he only goes through one big shed a year though, so lucky me! I take my boy to the beach almost every day in summer and even though he gets sandy and wet, I don't fine I have to groom him any extra, though it does mean the broom and vacuum have to come out though.

10. Is it too boisterous for very small children or for infirm people (unless the dog is well trained)?

A young chow can be very rough and boisterous but usually they just ignore people.

11. Are there any common hereditary problems a puppy buyer should be aware of?

Entropian is an issue I've personally dealt with and had to surgically operate on. Hips and elbow dysplasia is another common issue that I have not yet personally come across yet.

12. When buying a puppy, what are the things you should ask of the breeder? (eg what health tests have been done (if applicable) and what is an acceptable result to those tests so the buyer has an idea of what the result should be)

Hip and elbow scores. What are the parents like? Note how the parents eyes look (rolled in/teary?).

Apologies for the essay but just wanted to convey how each chow can be so different.

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

Create an account or sign in to comment

You need to be a member in order to leave a comment

Create an account

Sign up for a new account in our community. It's easy!

Register a new account

Sign in

Already have an account? Sign in here.

Sign In Now
Sign in to follow this  

×